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Overview

The Production of steel – how is it made?

Steel has the properties of being strong, applicable in many areas and inexpensive. Therefore, steel is one of the most widely used materials on earth. Since it can be recycled over and over again, it plays a crucial role in man industries. 

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What is normalizing?

Normalizing is a heat treatment process which is used to make metal, such as steel, more ductile and tough. Thermal and mechanical hardening processes decrease ductility and increase hardness of steel parts. Therefore, normalizing can reform the microstructure into more ductile structures. This reduces the residual stress of the workpiece. Further, normalizing makes the steel more formable and machinable.

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Hot rolled vs. cold rolled steel – What’s the difference?

The properties of metal are highly dependent on the chemical composition. However, even if the steel grades are the same, the manufacturing process does have a major influence on the characteristics of steel, as well. Prefabricated steel products can be finished by different processes, such as cold and hot rolling.

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Carbon Steel

Carbon steels are steel grades with a carbon content of up to 2.1% by weight. Carbon steel does not contain any minimum amount of other alloying elements, such as chromium, cobalt, molybdenum or tungsten. Nonetheless, it often contains manganese. However, the maximum amount of manganese in the metal should not exceed 1.65% by weight. Further, the amount of silicon and copper should be less than 0.6% by weight.

With the rise of the carbon amount in the steel, the hardness of the workpiece increases. However, the weldability and ductility reduces with higher carbon content.

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Passivation of stainless steel

Passivation is a finishing process for stainless steel and other metals. By removing free iron and thus increasing the chromium content in the metal, passivation improves the natural corrosion resistance of stainless steel.

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